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ǤԴǡѺ
ҳԷ (epistemology) ¶֧ ʵͷɮǡѺ ͤк 㹷ҧѪ ͧ繤㹤ԧ Щй鹻ѭҭҳԷ ֧§ ѧǾѹѺԧ ä觷 ԧ Ը ԧѷ (Relative) ó (Absolute) 繵

õҡ (Protagoras)
ҵáѺء (Man is the measure of all things.) : Фԧѵ

õҡ觷¡ §ͷȹТͧФ (subjective opinion) ѺФ 觷͹繤ԧѺ˹ 繨ԧѺ դԧù (objective truth) ѺѺء ѧ Ѻõҡ ҡ ͹µѺء֧ з ѹҨ繨ԧѺѹ ԧ㹷ȹТͧõҡѷ ¹ŧ µ ԧ͹

ǤԴͧõҡ ѧʹա դ繷еͧǧҤҡҵðҹǡѹ öդ繨ԧ٧ش (Absolute Reality)

㹰ҹйѡԴѷԻʺó (empiricism) õҡ 鹻ʺóҧҷ һҷ觨ԧ (seeing is believing) ֡Ըաͤ㴨ԧ Ҩк͡ʴԧ §ѡǹ¹ Ѻ Ӿٴͤͧ͢Ҩҹ ǹõѴԹѺͧͧкؤ

ʤҵ (Socrates)

ʤҵ Ҥó ҡ §͹ 繤㹤ԧ դ骹ԴǤ 骹Դѡԧ Դٹس öԴзҧ١ͧ

ʤҵ դ繤索Ҵ ǹѧӼԴ դ § ֧ҨԴҴ繸 դءöҶ֧ԧçѹ Фͤԧ觷㹵 ¡繤͹ʺó (Apriori Knowledge) ѧ觷١ š¹͡ ҵͧ֡ҵͧ (Know Thyself) Ǩоԧ

Ըա÷ʤҵ㹡֡ҵͧ äԴ֡ͧ㹢ШԵʧ աԸ˹觤 ö-ͺ ͷ¡ Ըաâͧʤҵ (Socratic Method) Сͺ

1. ʧѧ (skeptical) ʤҵʨ鹴¡¡ͧ Ѻͧ͸ԺͧѧШҧѧ ѡ س صԸ 繵

2. ʹ (conversation) ʤҵʨ繼駤Ӷʹ繼ͺ ԸաùзʹԴ¤ԧ㹵ͧ͡ § Ӥ Ф §͡١Ը

3. ҤӨӡѴ (conceptional definitional ) ʤҵ Ҥԧҵðҹὧ㹤ӨӡѴ ͤӹ ó صԸ ҡѧ صԸ ҡѧѡҡáзصԸصԸ 繵 ѧ鹡ʹҨ֧繡ʹͤӹѾ оѴҤӹ麡ͧ·ش

4. ͺ¡ŧͻԺѵ Ըա¡ҧҾǴҧѹҪ͢ѴҤӹ ӹ㴷ѧʴѧó еͧҤӨӡѴءѺբ

5. ػࡳҵðҹ ͹ҧԧ ֧þ٨ӹѧǴ

(Plato) : ¹ ÷ǹ

㹷ȹТͧ š ҡ觷ҡ͹ (Apriori) ѧ դ ԵͧʡѺ Ẻ 繤ԧ٧ش ǹѺ § ͤ

ʹ Եԭҳͧ й ¡Ѻ Ẻ ͨԵҤءաѺšѵطŧ кǹ֡˹ҧзԵ鹤ç ¹֧繡÷ǹ觷 § ͡е¹ԴҤӵͺµͧ ͹¹

繴¡ѺѡѪ⫿ʵ (ҧ õҡ) ҤͻҷФǹؤ о ҷҨǧ ѧ§ҾͧẺҹ

Ƕ֧ 4 дѺ

1. äҴ (conjecture) Ѵ繤դ͹ش Ҩҡҷ Թҡ ѹ Ҿз͹Ңͧ觵ҧ (ͧѡɷ١ѧ㹶) 繵

2. (belief) ФҡѺ (perception) ѵ觹 (ººѺ÷ѡѺû¾ѹҡ Ƕ١ѧѺ׹鹷ѹѹ仨ͧͧʧҧ٤ԧ͡)

дѺ 1 2 繤»ҷ 觾§ ͷȹ

3. ͤԴӴѺ˵ؼ (discursive intellect) 繤ѧѴਹ 觷ѡɳзҾ дѺ ءҧҧԵʵ ʹٵͷɮպԪâҤԵ оժԵ

4. 駴˵ؼ (rational insight) 繤դ͹٧ش ǡѺ Ẻ 觶繤Фԧǧ 繤駴˵ؼū觨йش (ºѺѡɷ Ҕ ͧԧ ҤҶ֧鹹кض֧ ҡԨ褹Ӥѭ

дѺ 3 4 繤 ʵ ͧ»ѭ㹡Ҷ֧

ѷ˵ؼŹ (rationalism)

ѡԴѷ˵ؼŹ ˵ؼ˹ҧǷ Ф觷ԴԴ 繤͹ʺó ֧һʺó١ͧ͹ к¤駷ҷǧ (seeing is deceiving)

(Rene Descartes) 㨨о٨ѨзҧѪҴ¡˵ؼ ֧ԸաҤ¡õ駢ʧ¡Ѻء

ػ ʧ” ҡѺ ҵͧ Դ ҤԴ Ҩ֧ç ҧҡеԹ Cogito, ergo sum I think, therefore I am. (ѹԴ ѧ ѹ֧)

÷ ˹ѡ ժԵԴ § ѹ ѧԴ ѹѧԴԧšѵطѺ»ҷ

ҤԴ աöѺ¤͹ (intuitive) Ẻ ػ 㹨ԵͧդԴѴਹ ѡɳ繤ԧӵͧ (necessary truth) ˹Ҩʶҹͧǡѹ 鹵ç袹ҹѹѹкèѹ 繵

觤Դ͡ 3
1. Դҡʺó¹͡ (Adventitious Ideas)
2. ԴԵҧ (Factitious Ideas)
3. ԴԴ (Innate Ideas) 觤ԴẺҤԴ繤Դ/ء͹ѹ¸ҵ 繤͹ʺóѴਹ

¡Ѵਹҧ Ե Ѻ ͧ觹Шҡѹ äҧ·͹ͧѡ÷óẺ ըԵӧҹҧШҡ ֧դö˹ͤͧ÷ҧ лԺѵԵҧ˵ؼ ͡ҡ͹⵷ ԵԭҳѺù¡ҡѹҧѴਹ

ѷԻʺó ѷԻШѡ (empiricism)

ѷԹ դ㹤ԧ¡»ҷҹ ֧š 繤ѧʺó (A Posteriori) ҧ駡¡ѷԹ ѷԻʺó

ͤ (John Locke) ա˹觷ǤԴ蹹 դǡѺšԴ Ҩդ 織 šҹ ҡ͡ջʺó 2 ѡɳ

1. ʺó¹͡ (sensation) ͻҷ 繤ԧ 繤ǡѺ觹鹷

2. ʺ (reflection) ͡÷ͧһҷͧ令Դǭ зöѴк˹¤¡ ⹷ȹ (concept) ͤԴǺʹ ҡ鹨֧ҧ繤Ѻ͹

ҡԴ ͤ Ҥ ͧԴ ջʺóҧҷҡ͹ ͹ ÷ ͤ ʸͧԴԴ

1. ҤԴԴըԧ ءͧդԴԴҡѹ 繨ԧ蹹 դᵡҧѹ ¹˹ѧ͡ յ ҡѹ
2. ҤԴԴըԧ ءͧԴԴ͹ѹ Դͧ ԧպҧѺ; 㹡Ѻ;ҡѧդᵡҧѹ
3. ҤդԴ͹ѹ çѹ š ͹ Դҡʺó ԴԴǷҡ͹ʺó
4. ͤѡ ɮ ҧԧѡҧ˵ؼ ԴԴ ҡ繤ԴԴҡʺó ҡ稨ԧҷ ǹػ

ͤ ʹԵͧҧ ط͹д˹ ¡ Tabula Rasa ͤʹ͡ҡŨҡš¹͡ ֡Ҩ֧繡 С 織 š¹͡ 觷觢ѺѡԴǹ ѵ 觷öҷǨµç

ͤѵ դسѵ 2 ҧ سѵԻ (primary quality) áԹ ˹ѡ ͹ ӹǹ ҤسѵẺöѺ͹ ФسѵԷص (secondary quality) § ФѺçѹ Ҩҧѹ仵 ʹ سѵẺ֧͹

;٨

ʧ»С˹觤 Ҩҧ觷繤ԧ? Ҿ٨١ͧͧͧ? ҡ繤ǧ 繤ǧ

ɮդçѹ (correspondence theory) ɮդԧẺ

çѹ ¶֧ ŧ¡ѹ ͤ׹ѹͧԴмػͧþԨóҵѴԹ (judgment) ǡѺ稨ԧҧ ҡ㹸ҵ ػͧþԨóҵѴԹ ͡ա 繨ԧ觷¡ ͡ ԧ ʹǡաԧ

ҹҹ (George Santayana) ѡѪѨԧԨó (Critical Realism) ԧ çѹͤŧ¡ѹҧѵ (essence) ͧ觷 Ѻ (existence) ѹҾҡͧ觹 ·ѵ سѡɳзӤѭШ繷觹 繤سѵԷѹҡҤ觹 ǹ ûҡҧҷ

ɮդ (coherence theory) ɮդԧẺ˹

ʹͧѹк ҧ觷ҡѧʺ Ѻԧͧ٨ ɮâҤԵ 鹵ç 2 鹵Ѵѹ çѹҡѹ ѧҾ

ػ a b ҡѹ ٻդ¡Ѻɮպ 鹵ç 2 鹵Ѵѹ çҡѹ 觷ɮպѧ繤ԧͧ٨ 觷Ѻѹҡ ѧ ͢ػ ʹͧѹԧѧ ػ ػ繤ԧ

ɮդ¹ͧ¡äԴ˵ؼŷͧ»ʺóҧҷ ֧ػҹѡ˵ؼŹѺɮչ

ɮաù (pragmatic theory) ɮդԧẺԺѵԹ
ѡѪѷԻԺѵԹ ҹҹ 任ԺѵŴ 繢;٨׹ѹ١ͧͧ
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