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            ҧ ͹ (IBHorner) ԹѭҨ觢¢ͧԹ ʴص (Sbutt) ҳ Ҩ¡ͧؤ աҹҹ й źҪ (AL Basham) ҧաҨèҢ㹤ʵȵɷ 1 ԩй鹡á ʵѡҪ ҧ¡ͧ͹оطҨѧ ͧҧǹѧûԮѴ繪Ҵ 繷զԡ Ѫ-ѧص-ѧص-طԡ ǹҳҨ˹ҷ㹡Ǻ 礧㹨ӹǹйҤʹ 繼㹸âͧоط ʹʹԡ (ADAdikaram) ѧࡵͺǹ һҴͺؤŵҧ ҡ㹢طҳйաǶ֧ö Ҿͧ (ҧ͹) 辺͹ѹ ǡѺ鹰ҹͧͤҧ Թѭҹ (ʹԡ) ػԴԹ Դѧ
            ҧ͹ ѧࡵա 繷ѧࡵѵԹ ҧͤҧ͹ҡԹѭ ͹ 1-3 иѯ ҧͤҡԹѭ ͹ 4-6 … ѡҹҧ ҹʴҾоطҨդӹԪӹҭԹѭҧ ѧ ԹѭҨèҢԹ ᤪ ͻҳ 300400 ա͹е㹻ѧ º繢͵ҧѹ طäͧоطҨ 㹷ҧԺѵ÷ӵطҧ´ ǹ鹰ҹ ͸Ժ Сйӵҧ Թѭҹ 㹷ҧѲһѭҡẺἹ㹡ԭҸǹ شµʴ ͧèТѴ˵觤ͺŧʧµҧ ѹҨԴͧҡդ繢Ѵ駡ѹǡѺФ ö觤͹ ͨТѴѭҡҧ ͹ت͹ҤѺӵͺ١ͧǡѺѭͧ ѹҨԴʹ ͨз§ѹѹо֧͹ҤǡѺѭҹ 觨еͧѹ֡ʹҷԴ鹨ԧ Դ鹨ԧҧѵçлժöҧ (Ҩ繡ѵաҡ¹ Ҩ繺ҡաҡ) ѺйҤʹդö ѹ 蹹 еͧԴ觢ͧ աǺ Ѻ繻 Ҩդ Ҵ  дԸմѧǹͧ ֧繧ҹѡҹ դӤѭ ֧㹷ش Թѭҹ 繼ŧҹͧèҨҡ˹觷ҹ ѹзѴѴ㹵͹ ͧ ҨᵡҧѹѺ͹ ʴ繶֧ӹԪӹҭ㹷ҧӹǹó ͧʹѺʹع԰ҹѧǹҧ


            ǹʵҨ Դ ػǡѺèԹѭҹ ͻѡҹҧ ҡʶҹӤѭӤѭ Ƕ֧ ػ èҤ ҧҤѹ§˹ͧ͢Թ 鹻ѭҺͧԹ (Ѩغѹ) ˵ؼŷʹѺʹع繴ѧǹ˹ѡ觢 㹷 ੾ҧ㹻ѧ ҨоԨó繷ͧ觤 ҡҹ㹷Ǣҧ鹡 ҡ͹óǡѺѹ
            ʤҨ Դ ѧա ԹѭҹèҢѧ졶ѵ 繤㹾ԸԮ¾պصõ 㹤Ƿѧ¹Ҥ駷 3 ѧطԹԾҹ 235 ººͧ ͤԹѭµ͹Ҩҡ졶ѵ ѭͧԾѡԧ ͧʶؾѵǨкǪԸҧ 繵 çѺ㹡ѵطءҧ 㹡ѵѧ´ȴáա 繸 ͤ㹤ҡҹ ѡж١ҧ㹤觷ѧ Ф¡ҧǡѹ ͻҺǡԨҷԯлͧѹʹҨҡǡѷ
            Թ   ѵ ԧ ػѸ (Bharat Singh Upadhyaya) ӵͺ㹻ѭҹ Թ ͧǡѺѹ ѵҵԹⴡա 繼çػʹѺʹعоطʹ Ӥѭͧ˹ҧȵɷ 2 Թ Ҩҡҡա
ѹ (Menandros) ѡ¹¹¡йͧѵͧҧ¡ѹ ˹ѧ ǷҹŻŴ ͧҹ (Ksemendras Avadanakalpalata) ¡йͧѵͧ Թ (Milindra) 繹ǡѹѺ辺˹ѧǴ ѹ (the Bstan-hygur) 觾ûԮີ Ө֡պȾҪԹ͵ (Shinkot) 繵ѡ ɰ (Kharosthi) ¡йͧѵͧ ѷ (Menadra) ѡҹӤѭͨлͧǢͧѵҵԹⴡաͧ Թѭҹͧ ͧǢͧѡѵʵա ʵ (Strabo) ٵ (Plutarch) ШʵԹ (Justin) ­ͧѹͧ 觨֡ѡ Basileus Soteros Menandros 鹾㹷ҧ 22 ӡҺ (Kabul) Թ (Sindh) 㹺dzҤѹ ͧصû (Uttar PradesH) ѡҪ·ҹդᵡҧѹͧѹ͹ͧѹ Ը (Smith) դ ѹͧ㹡ȵɷ 2 ͹ ͪҸ (HC Raychaudhuri) ͧçЪȵɷ 1 ͹
           Թѭҡ ԹçЪ ѧطԹԾҹ 500 й ֧˵ؼ§ͷС ѵաͧ çͧҪȵɷ 1 ͹ բ稨ԧ ׹ѹաѹҡ Թѭҡ ѹ 繾Ҫ觾ǡ¹ ¹ҹ Ҫ Թⷔ Ӻ ¹ ¹ (ѹʡĵ ǹ) 繤ǡѺ¹ҳ ǹД ¶֧ǡ¹ա (Ionian Greeks) ͹ ¶֧ǡա ҳҨѡâͧǡ¹ Yonas) оǡ⾪ (Kambojas) 繷ѡԹȵɷ 6 ͹ ѧѡҹ¹ٵ Ѫԡ ʴ ЪҪͧҳҨѡҹ § 2 ó ǡ (Arya) оǡ (Dasa) ᷹ 4 ó͹ѧԹ 繢稨ԧҺѹ ѧѧ¹Ҥ駷 3 觷ӷاүպص ա觹ѡоطʹѧ¹ѹҧ ѹСͺ仴ҳҨѡþѹͤʷ 2 觫 (Antiochos II of Syria) ҳҨѡâͧѹ⡹ ҵ (Antigonos Gonatos of Macedonia) 繵 ͤҨ֡ դӡǵա ԡتǡա ѡԵ (Yona Dhammrakkhita) ١任СȾʹͻҹ й ֧Ѵਹ ͹ѹ԰ͧоطҶ֧Ե㨢ͧǡա͹¢ͧѹ ǹҡҺѹ ѵͧ繾ͧáçʹз㹤͹ͧоط·ç駢ʧ¢»С ;ͧçʴѺѪҢͧйҤʹͨʧ ͧçʹѺʹع㹡оطʹ Թѭҡ ԹٵԷӺšԤ ѹ ͧ硫ҹ (Alexandria) ͡ѹ (Kandahar) 㹻Ѩغѹ ǧͧͧ ͧҤ ͧǡѹѺͧѧ (Sangal) ͧѡѵʵա ¹ (Arrian) ͧҤ (Sagal) ٸ (Euthumedeia) ͧ (Ptolemy) ͧ㹺dzͧ š͵ (Sialkot) űŻѭҺ ҳҨѡâͧѹСͺ (Peshawar) ӡҺŵ͹ ŻѭҺ (Panjab) Թ (Sindh) š (Kathiawar) صûȵѹ ;ԹçѺ;оطʹ ͧçҧê Թ ¾йҤʹ ͡ҡ ͧѧçҳҨѡ觾оطʹ͡աѹҡ ˹ѧԹѭ Թä ͷçǪԡ ѧҡçҪѵҪҳҨѡҪ ǡѹҾͧؾѵ 繨ش»·ҧͧоطʹẺҷաС˹ ­ͧѹ յҾиѡ ֧˵ؼŷԴҴ ͧç繾طʹԡ觤Ѵ  ͹ Ҩ֡ҪԹ͵ ٨ ѵաͧ çоطʹҳҺdz Թ١ ֧Թ ٵ졡ǵ 㹰ҹзͧç繡ѵ ͧçդصԸҧʹ зç繷ѡͧǧء ӹҨͧçʶһҢ鹨٭仨ҡԹ¾Ѻ鹾Ъͧͧ ͹ѹʴ֧ͧçդصԸ վлժö 繾طʹԡ觤Ѵ ׹§Ѻ˹ѧԹѭ ­ҸѡâͧͧǡŻҹ

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